How many surveys for great crested newts ?

Great Crested Newt on handGreat crested newt captured by nettingGreat crested newt fence with bucket

We thought it helpful for clients to have set out what actual Natural England requirements are for licencing – how old your survey can be  – and how many surveys are necessary.

Natural England guidance

Natural England guidance on presently acceptable levels of survey effort is set out in their EPSL method statement form – which we present below – slightly tweaked.  This sets out both the type and age of data viewed as acceptable.  You can use the filters to find your project type.

This is our Excel table here : Great crested – survey effort and age

Deconstructing this gives some interesting insights about the age of data required, but also whether as to whether a full six surveys or repeat surveys are necessary.

Low impact licences and survey data

If we read through this table, you will find that low impact or temporary development can often use presence/absence data alone, which makes sense.  You may only need four instead of six visits ( or possibly only one if you find them first time ! ). Newt numbers decline rapidly away from ponds ( either the creatures are too unfit or simply due to dispersion effects ). The effect a long way from ponds can therefore be predicted as being low, based on their presence alone.  Far enough away and you can assume de minimus effects, and possibly avoid surveys all together.

The age of data is based on spring/summer survey seasons elapsed ( but see also later for a potential complexity here ):

Survey done Age of survey (before May[?] 2015)
March to May 2015 0 (before May 15)
2014 1
2013 2
2012 3
2011 4
2010 5
2009 6

So this year, data from the 2011 summer season is 4 years old, assuming you apply before end of May[?] 2015.  This also means that for some low impact schemes, older data will be helpful.  There are various caveats to this.

It is not 100% clear from the footnote on the NE guidance whether the age of the survey is the number of survey seasons missed, inclusive or exclusive of the present year.  It would seem more logical that 2015 data is 0 years old until March 2016, but in fact it appears to be 1 after May this year. However it would be impossible to survey, get planning and apply in the time period. We will take this point up with Natural England for clarity [ thanks to someone for pointing this out to me ].

What survey effort is most helpful ?

This raises for us an interesting question about proportionality and efficiency – what solution for survey effort allows most accurate information most efficiently ?

Given that most ponds are in the small or medium range and that large counts are generally from aggregation across ponds, should we focus more on the number of ponds involved and their functional nature ?

eDNA difficulties for presence/abscence

A difficulty of eDNA for results is that it shows us nothing of the pond’s function.

Four nocturnal visits will not only give a very good guide for impact assessment,  but also should generally reveal if the animals are breeding successfully and may turn up eggs or efts dependant on timing.

Many ponds around a breeding pond have occasional newts, but are not of high enough quality for breeding – this issue was never tackled by HSI.  Vice versa large numbers of males lecking at a pond indicate one thing.  Knowledge about successful breeding at a pond seems to us essential in stating the effects on the population.

Conclusions

So to return to the question only four surveys with presence or possibly even eDNA to prove absence could be sufficient for your needs, or you may be able to rely on existing older data. However really your consultant needs to have some understanding of population ecology to advise you on mitigation and obtaining a licence. Following guidance verbatim is not a good solution and could waste your money – sorry that slipped out.

With this in mind we advise you not to rely on this article for formal advice, but let us discuss with you how it applies to your suituation – please contact us directly if you have a licencing query or you have some observations about the article.

There is more Natural England advice on their website : https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/great-crested-newts-apply-for-a-mitigation-licence

New EPSLs – reduced paperwork

Natural England have updated their European Protected Species licence forms, reducing some of the paperwork burdens on applicants.

New application form for bats

There is a new EPSL application form, which we think makes a lot more sense.  We are not sure if it is editable in all versions of Adobe Reader, but you can certainly use Foxit.  There are seperate forms for <3 species and >3 species, with a lot of tick boxes replacing the need to repeat text in and squeeze stuff up. It should make it more accessible for clients and easier to complete, plus indicates that NE may be streaming licences into low and high impact schemes, which makes a lot of sense.

Applications for home improvements and small scale housing developments

The guidance on the need for a Reasoned Statement has changed, making it only necessary for more complicated applications.  This doesn’t imply that you don’t need a licence – simply that the paperwork is becoming more proportional to the situation.  You need to read the details, but this means no more 20 page documents justifying a loft conversion or putting in a dormer window from NPPF. It also may reduce the paperwork burden on barn conversions under Permitted Development rights.

The exemptions are below.

Exemptions for Bats

“The following categories of work for all bat species and their roosts*:
i. repairs and maintenance, roof replacements, loft conversions, extensions and renovations of existing domestic dwellings and associated structures (eg garages).
ii. small-scale housing developments, including those that may require the demolition of existing buildings (whether domestic dwellings or other types of building).
*Unless the population is of regional or national importance – in which case please contact Natural England (see below) to discuss whether a Reasoned Statement is required.”

Exemptions for Great crested newts
“The following categories of works:
i. repairs and maintenance, extensions and renovations of existing domestic dwellings and associated structures (e.g. garages).
ii. small-scale housing developments within the curtilage of developed or previously developed (brownfield) sites, including those that may require the demolition of existing buildings (whether domestic dwellings or other types of building).”

There are also similar improvements around applications to conserve and protect Listed Buildings, Scheduled Monuments and places of worship.

You will need to read the fine print to see if this applies to you or contact us for advice.

A very sensible development from Natural England.

The document from Natural England is attached below :

Does my application need supported by a Reasoned Statement April 2015

Bat and newt licence delays – April

We thought an update of European Protected Licence delays for bats and great crested newts on our previous February stats article might be of assistance.

Natural England are still unfortunately experiencing delays in reviewing European Protected Species Licence applications. If you need to gaining a licence and how it might affect your project, please contact us as soon as possible.

The Natural England FCS test are also now processed and signed off at a regional level, which may have lead to some teething issues.  It has helped by improving lines of communication once an advisor has been allocated.  Generally discussion on allocation dates are “vague”, but once the licence is allocated and processed this is generally quick. As a corollary, then it is difficult for clients to plan with certainty when a licence will arrive, except at short notice.

Delays with bat licences have not worsened, but remain steady at around three to four weeks.  Hopefully newly trained staff should be assisting now, but our forecast is for no improvement in the immediate to near future.

With respect to Great Crested Newts, we would forecast that there will be additional delays, which are shown by the lengthening queue, due to the normal “spring surge” of new applications.

The following are based on ‘New’ Application processing time during the four week period 2nd March 2015 to 3rd April 2015 :

Bat Update (as of 6th April 2015)

  • 368  ‘New’ Applications outstanding [ Up from 355 on 10 February, 279 on 22 December ]
  • “New application processing time: Average delay of 17 days (47 days versus 30 working day decision deadline) [ No change from 48 days on February and 47 days on 22 December ]

Similar processing times were reported for Modifications and Resubmissions.

Great Crested Newt Update (as of 6th April 2015 )

  • 162 ‘New’ Applications outstanding [ Up from 52 in February, 19 on 22 December ]
  • “New” application processing time: Average delay of 5 days (35 days versus 30 working day decision deadline) [ 32 days on February, 37 days on 22 December ]

There were similar processing times for Modifications and Resubmissions.

 

New winter homes for great crested newts

Since 2000, NWS has worked on development sites that support great crested newts, and in 2014 successfully assisted Saffron Housing in obtaining a European Protected Species Mitigation (EPSM) licence for this species on a residential development in South Norfolk. Nationally great crested newts have suffered huge declines and so are protected by European and UK law. Norfolk is one of the species’ strongholds, with greatest numbers of breeding ponds found on heavy clay soils.

With great crested newts present in ponds around the area and using the grassland on site to move between these, the EPSM licence was required during construction to protect these amphibians and provide compensatory habitat.

NWS staff supervised the installation of “newt exclusion fencing” and carried out pitfall trapping to remove newts from harm’s way. Great crested newts only use ponds for breeding and spend the rest of the year on land. The team focussed the compensatory habitat on features suitable for use during this “terrestrial phase” and supervised the creation of what was dubbed “Newt Nirvana” by the developer:  a wildflower grassland with hedgerows and scrub.

A key feature was the creation of three earth and stone mounds, which newts will use

This hibernacula has a rubble/log base to provide crevices for overwintering newts

This hibernacula has a rubble/log base to provide crevices for overwintering newts and is covered with turf to create stable temperatures through winter

during winter, called hibernacula. Great crested newts hibernate when winter temperatures drop below 5oC, normally from October or November. They typically hibernate underneath logs, within mammal burrow or tree roots, and even in building foundations. The hibernacula on site were designed to provide a number of sheltered crevices using logs and rubble, topped with turf to prevent exposure, whilst also ensuring newts were safe from flooding. Here the newts can remain protected until they emerge in late February or March to begin breeding in ponds.

Great crested newts : surveys and assessment

Why are great crested newt surveys needed?

Great crested newt surveys are needed if they might be impacted by a development.  Normally this means where there are ponds within 250m of a site.

Great crested newt surveys help determine whether newts are present and what the state of the local populations and habitats are.

Great crested newts have suffered serious declines in numbers over the last century. For this reason, they and their habitat are protected both under both national and European law.

This great crested newt was found during pitfall trapping in 2014

Great crested newt found during pitfall trapping

Smooth newt found during bottle trapping

Smooth newt found during pitfall trapping

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Where are they found ?

Although they can disperse long distances and are found in a range of places, they are typically within 250m of a suitable pond.

Adult great crested newts are dependant on high quality aquatic habitats in ponds for breeding.  The adults though spend much of their life on land using grassland, woodland, hedgerows. During winter they will hibernate underground and can even spend winter in building foundations.

This pond in South Norfolk was home to 120 great crested newts, 50 smooth newts and a number of frogs and toads

This pond in South Norfolk was home to 120 great crested newts, 50 smooth newts and a number of frogs and toads

The picture on the right shows a pond surveyed in 2014 that a total count of over 120 newts on one night, which is exceptional.

 

 

 

How is a survey carried out?

There are three stages :

1. A walkover to look at whether habitat is suitable

2. Surveys to identify local populations if habitat is suitable

3. Assessing if there is an impact on these populations from the development

Walkover surveys in daytime

The first stage of a great crested newt survey is normally to carry out a daytime assessment of ponds in the vicinity.  This uses a technique called a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) assessment on any water bodies present.

Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) is a predictive tool which looks at the likelihood that great crested newts are present. It can be undertaken at any time of the year.

Low HSI scores are sometimes sufficient to conclude the likely absence of newts and are helpful in concluding abscence from a site. Where there are good quality ponds and higher scores, further surveys will be needed to say if newts are present.

Great crested newt captured by netting

Great crested newt captured by netting

Surveys for populations

There are two choices for searching for newts, “traditional” nocturnal surveys and the more recent “environmental DNA” technique ( “eDNA” ).

  • For “traditional” nocturnal surveys, these are carried out between mid-March and mid-June.
  • For eDNA surveys, these are carried out upto the end of June.

“Traditional” nocturnal surveys

Since great crested newts are nocturnal and difficult to find on land, surveys take place at night between mid-March to mid-June when they gather in ponds to breed.

Four visits are required to determine presence or likely absence, and two of these must take place between mid-April to mid-May which is the peak for breeding activity.

If great crested newts are found during these surveys, an additional two visits estimate the population size more accurately. These are also important if obtaining a licence from Natural England.

The survey will involve looking for eggs, searching for adults with a bright torch and netting for adults and larvae.  Where there is poor visibility or the site is unsafe to enter at night, then bottle trapping can be used.  This technique is more risky as it can potentially drown animals if the traps are not set correctly.

Using eDNA techniques

An alternative and new technique to work out if newts are present is to collect water samples from the pond and have them analysed for great crested newt eDNA. This technique can quickly rule out a number of ponds and avoids unnecessary night surveys.

However, if eDNA results come back positive, six nocturnal visits will be required to determine the population size.

Water samples can be collected between mid-April to end-June using a set methodology.  We have used this technique extensively and can advise you if it is suitable for your development.

Assessing impacts on great crested newts?

The Local Planning Authority needs to know that the development will not impact the species long-term.

When considering a planning application, generally they will request to know if great crested newts are present, and if so how the population will be affected, so they can consider as a “material consideration”. We can provide that assessment for you, based on years of experience.

Sometimes avoidance of impacts is possible, based on changing the timings of works or altering layouts or locations.  This avoids later needs for a licences and could be conditioned as a “method statement”.

What if there newts are impacted ?

Where there are newts AND an impact is likely, a European Protected Species Mitigation (EPSM) licence from Natural England will be required. The licence will detail how and when the work can take place, any trapping or use of protective fences, and any compensation measures like new ponds or meadows.

This will usually be conditioned on to any planning decision, but will need to be demonstrated as deliverable prior the planning stage.  The law in this area is complex, so we suggest you seek our advice on your options.

Who can do surveys ?

An experienced great crested newt surveyor is required to survey and make an assessment.  Our staff have the necessary licences and experience to do the surveys for you.

Having set out the above “rules” there are exceptions, but they are complex and we suggest you ring us to discuss.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Natural England – update on European licences delays : 16/2/15

We thought an update of statistics on our previous article might be of assistance.

Natural England are still unfortunately experiencing delays in reviewing European Protected Species Licence applications.  It looks like the situation with bats has slightly worsened, although the issues with great crested newts now appear to have improved.  They are training more staff, but our forecast is for no improvement in the immediate to near future.

Bat Update (as of 16th February 2015)

  • 355 ‘New’ Applications outstanding [ Up from 279 on 22 December ]
  • “New application processing time: Average delay of 18 days (48 days versus 30 working day decision deadline) [ Increase from 17 days on 22 December ]

Great Crested Newt Update (as of 16th February 2015)

  • 52 ‘New’ Applications outstanding [ Up from 19 on 22 December ]
  • “New” application processing time: Average delay of 2 days (32 days versus 30 working day decision deadline) [ Down from 7 days on 22 December ]

If you are concerned about gaining a licence, please contact us as soon as possible.

Natural England – serious delays to European licences

There are serious delays in Natural England issuing development (“European”) licences for bats and great crested newts and their normal 30-day turnaround is being missed by upto 3 weeks.  Natural England has stated that this follows “the recent introduction of our new IT system”, but this issue appears to be continuous since at least March 2014, and appears to also be anecdotally linked to the number of trained staff available, and has not yet shown signs of improving.

The delays in the processing of Wildlife Licence applications, apply both to acknowledging receipt and the issuing of decisions (see update below for the four week period 24th November to 19th December 2014), and is worst for bats.

Natural England staff are apologetic for this delay, and we have spoken to advisors who have been distressed by the situation. Their office will be closed from 4pm 24th December 2014 until 2nd January 2015, which will mean another 5 days delay to any licences outstanding at Christmas.  Area managers have been helpful in advising about delays.

We suggest that any clients requiring licencing in the next few months, engage us as soon as possible so that we can advise.

Great Crested Newts Update (as at 22nd December 2014 )

  • 19 ‘New’ Applications outstanding.
  • ‘New’ Application processing time : Average delay of 7 days  [37 days versus 30 working day decision deadline ]

Bat Update (as at 22nd December 2014)

  • 279 ‘New’ Applications outstanding.
  • ‘New’ Application processing time : Average delay of 17 days [47 days versus 30 working day decision deadline ]

 

Alex’s Work Placement Blog

At Hellesdon High School, we need to do a work placement in Year 11, so I have been completing work experience in the NWS consultancy office on Monday 14th and Tuesday 15th July 2014. I learned about what the consultancy does to preserve protected species and how developers have to take precautions if they want to develop areas which have been found to contain any protected species  in them ( such as bats or great crested newts ).

I also helped during my placement on evening surveys with my dad, which was probably a bit more interesting to get out and about.

The first survey was a night time newt survey at three different ponds with torches and bottle traps. My dad and I enjoyed this so much we went back there in the morning to come and see the results of the bottle trapping.  We had caught a great-crested newt and I got to handle it [supervised !] before it was released, which I had never done before and found very exciting.  The most enjoyable thing was finding out about how to prove the existence of great-crested newts – they are not very easy to find except by night.

The second survey for the placement was a bat survey on a thatched house at Hickling.  In this we counted the numbers of bats coming out of a gap in the thatch. We counted 98 bats from the same place, which means a big roost inside the roof somewhere. This was fantastic to see – so many bats in one night – the person on the other side didn’t see any all night so I was lucky ! I enjoyed learning about bat species – I hadn’t realised before that there were many different species of bat and not just one.

Finally we found a kitten on the riverside on our lunch break, so I also got to look after the rescue kitten for a bit, although I am not sure he was that happy about it. All in a day’s work at NWS !

Rescued cat with Alex

Kitten with good acting skills as Great Crested Newt in training exercise

Picture of Alex with the cat

Alex on placement at the NWS office with bemused kitten