Since starting great crested newt surveys in mid-March 2015, about 20% of the 75 ponds surveyed across Norfolk contained newts. For these sites, their development may now require a “European Protected Species Mitigation” ( EPSM ) licence, granted by Natural England after planning permission is given.
Lemonade and great crested newts
Bottle trap used in great crested newt surveys
We devise the mitigation strategy for clients based on where and how many newts are present.
To estimate numbers, we make six nocturnal counts via netting, with “bottle traps” (1.5 litre lemonade bottles) and spotlights. This indication of population size is used to devise a proportional strategy, ensuring that your development does not adversely affect newt populations.
The EPSM licence needs to provide “compensatory habitat” at least equal in extent to that lost by development. Newt habitats include scrub, grassland and woodland, but also often brown field areas, especially near old gravel or brick pits. Ideas to think about when designing “compensatory habitat” are:
- Restoring existing ponds to make them more suitable for great crested newts by clearing out shading scrub or desilting.
- Creating brand new ponds: often also an attractive landscape feature (but no fish please and balancing lagoons aren’t suitable!)
- Making wildflower meadows: good foraging habitat for newts plus an attractive feature managed well;
- Planting woodland belts and hedgerows makes excellent shaded habitat for newts with leaf litter and logs, plus good for site landscaping, and corridors for newts to travel along to safely get from one area to another.
The bucket stage
If work cannot avoid impacting great crested newts, the development will need fencing off and trapping out with “pitfall traps” (buckets) to capture them and move them to safety. Trapping normally takes place in autumn or early spring as it requires both suitably wet weather, but reasonable temperatures for the newt activity.
The number of nights trapping depends on the population, varying between 30 and 90 nights with additional needs where breeding ponds are removed. If the fencing fails during building, then retrapping may be required, so investment in a decent spec fence is worth some thought. Generally you will need to keep the perimeter up from start to finish.
To create the compensatory habitat for a site near Dereham, we cleared ornamental shrubs and seeded the bare banks with wetland wildflowers around an existing pond, creating excellent refuges and invertebrates to hunt. Enclaves of wildflowers and trees were connected via thick hedgerows running around the boundary of the development, linking to hedges and ponds in the landscape. Post development, the 2015 recount of newts showed numbers of breeding newts have remained consistent at 85, and that the mitigation had been successful.