Since 2000, NWS has worked on development sites that support great crested newts, and in 2014 successfully assisted Saffron Housing in obtaining a European Protected Species Mitigation (EPSM) licence for this species on a residential development in South Norfolk. Nationally great crested newts have suffered huge declines and so are protected by European and UK law. Norfolk is one of the species’ strongholds, with greatest numbers of breeding ponds found on heavy clay soils.
With great crested newts present in ponds around the area and using the grassland on site to move between these, the EPSM licence was required during construction to protect these amphibians and provide compensatory habitat.
NWS staff supervised the installation of “newt exclusion fencing” and carried out pitfall trapping to remove newts from harm’s way. Great crested newts only use ponds for breeding and spend the rest of the year on land. The team focussed the compensatory habitat on features suitable for use during this “terrestrial phase” and supervised the creation of what was dubbed “Newt Nirvana” by the developer: a wildflower grassland with hedgerows and scrub.
A key feature was the creation of three earth and stone mounds, which newts will use
during winter, called hibernacula. Great crested newts hibernate when winter temperatures drop below 5oC, normally from October or November. They typically hibernate underneath logs, within mammal burrow or tree roots, and even in building foundations. The hibernacula on site were designed to provide a number of sheltered crevices using logs and rubble, topped with turf to prevent exposure, whilst also ensuring newts were safe from flooding. Here the newts can remain protected until they emerge in late February or March to begin breeding in ponds.